This in return causes many problems in the cities, housing, and sanitation, improving methods of communication and acquiring more and more lands for manifold purposes. This theory is more progressive one. Sociology concentrates its study upon the group life of human beings and the product of their group living. In this context, Karl Marx has analyzed emergence and development of class with the development of mode of production. The sources of ideology of Marx we can take the philosophy of Hegel, Political economy of Britain and the ideology and French Socialist thinkers. For instance, South Americans when speaking are very close Hanslin, 2013, p110.
Economic factor is a main causal factor of social development which emerges the other factors. But even totalitarian regimes attempt to legitimize themselves in terms of such values, and it is impossible to understand their policies, their attempts to create symbols of mass consensus, without assuming the existence of such consensual tendency among the major strata within them and its acknowledgement by the rulers. Modernization is the process in which social and economic change is obtained through industrial revolution, urbanization and other social changes that alters people's lives. For example, where a politician or head of a company gives their brother or someone from their village or ethnic group a job simply because they are close to them, rather than employing someone based on their individual talent. Thus at certain stages of modernization, the problem of suffrage and of the definition of the new political community, of attainment of its independence, assumed most central importance. These experts are in turn supervised to some extent by holders of political, economic, or communal power, but only to very little extent directly by the clients to whom they provide their services.
Moreover, this theory can help to understand present society and to interpret and analyze economic condition of third world countries because this theory has provided very clear interpretation about various aspects of exploitation of the capitalist mode of production. There are two crucial aspects of modernisation: One, the institutional or organizational aspect and the other, cultural aspect. Simmel contributed to establish conflict as an approach through the analysis of positive and negative aspects of conflict. But, the industrial capitalism is not without its evil effects. On the other hand, however, these different organizations became more closely interconnected either through some overall educational planning or through the fact that one became a recognized channel for advancement into the other, as well as through the growing competition between them for the same manpower and resources. Though their powers hive been sufficiently curtailed, yet they have been made useful institutions which could serve the growing needs of the society. While modernization has in many ways disrupted many aspects of this order, in other ways it only accentuated the identification with this common cultural heritage and intensified the relations between the new emerging political units.
In the United States and the first Dominions Canada, Australia, etc. The access of them increases on the means of production. A modern polity, they argue, has the following characteristics which a traditional polity presumably lacks: A highly differentiated and functionally specific system of Government organization; a high degree of integration within this Government structure; the prevalence of rational and secular procedures for the making of political decision; the large volume, wide range and high efficiency of its political and administrative decision; widespread and effective sense of popular identification with history, territory, and national identity of the State; widespread popular-interest and involvement in the political system, the allocation of political roles by achievement rather than ascription, and judicial and regulatory techniques based upon a predominantly secular and impersonal system of law. Definition of Sociology The subject has been looked from various points of view and now it is an opportune time to define the subject properly. Distinctive class relations, based on those who own and control the means of production and those who only have their laboring power to sell, have become serious.
Marxists have the concept that drastic change of society happens through the medium of class struggle. Likewise, politically ruling class and ruled class are the consequences of in equal relationship, between these classes also remain the conflict. In general, rational, scientific approach to problems and the pursuit of economic wealth seems still to many a reasonable way of understanding good social development. The essence of the plant remains again there on the product of it. Moreover, there is class demarcation between capitalist and proletariat class.
This is profoundly related to the ideal of meritocracy. Seemingly contradictory characteristics ascribed to modernity are often different aspects of this process. The nonascriptive regulators are characterized by the fact that they occupy their positions by virtue of some achieved position — either by being chosen to represent other people or groups, or by virtue of their ownership of special capital, or of some specific knowledge expertise. This situation has been stimulated for the agitation and conflict. Giddens draws heavily on the thought of Marx and says that it would be mistaken to equate modernity with only liberalism, capitalism or industrialism.
The empiricist collects facts, the rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. Profits are reinvested in infrastructure etc. Mit der Zeit wurde ich allerdings immer unzufriedener mit vielen dieser Annahmen. Redemptive social movements, which promote radical change in certain individuals. In this theory economic factor, mode of production and economy is taken responsible cause of factor for the emergence of class struggle in the society, religion, stratification, conflict etc. The subject matter of sociology is huge and complex, and the knowledge produced by sociological research is still imperfect in many ways.
Where few capitalist class exploit to the working class people or they make internal plot through the buy and sale them as an object or service. The assumption of social balance and social static cannot be the transformation of social system. The polarization further increases the level of conflict and after certain period of time class conflict starts. Put simply, modern societies are held together not by likeness but by difference: All of us must depend on others to meet most of our needs. The main essence of class struggle theory is to show the emergence of different classes, their relationship, class polarization, and how the structure of social change has been created through the mean of struggle. The assumption of this theory is no society out of conflict, is itself based on fact. From small and parliamentary cliques, from varied, relatively restricted but fully articulated interest groups on the one hand, and from different types of social movements on the other, there developed more fully organized political parties — the mass parties.
As one can see above, often seemingly opposite forces such as objectivism and subjectivism, individualism and the nationalism, democratization and totalitarianism are attributed to modernity, and there are perhaps reasons to argue why each is a result of the modern world. The process of the development of society has been running gradually in the process of development. As a member of the family of social sciences like history, political science, economics, psychology, anthropology etc. This is also an important characteristic of this approach. In each society the main cause of conflict becomes exploitation. In this context, the causes of conflict can be presented as following: Also read: Because of the caste system, conflict is emerged between upper caste and lower caste.
Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science: This does not mean that sociology is an art and not a science. Galeano 1992 argues that minds become colonised with the idea that they are dependent on outside forces. All the things which we can see in the world such as solar system, planets, earth etc. New social processes such as urbanization, industrialization, forming cities etc. The medium of this is taken as class struggle. The second is the notion of equality as the central ethos and ethical imperative pervading the operative ideals of all aspects of modern life. For the study of changeability of socio-cultural processes, this theory is very important because this theory provides objectivity in the study of social system.