The court of law is authorised to inflict punishment upon the accused, only if it is satisfied that the evidence gathered by the investigating agency is sufficient to establish: a that crime had been committed, and, b the persons charged with the offence and brought before the court by the investigating agency for trial are the real perpetrators of the crime. So it can be concluded that both the laws complement each other. In its broad and literal sense, it means taking notice of an offence. The learned Magistrate purported to act in exercise of his powers under Section 190 of the Code, but without taking recourse to the other provisions indicated in Sections 200 and 202 of the Code, before proceeding to issue summons under Section 204 of the Code. Niyaz Ahmed, Shakeel Iqbal Ainapur and M.
The investigating agency is required to submit a report under Section 173 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, upon the completion of investigation. Cognizance of offences by Magistrates 1 Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, any Magistrate of the first class, and any Magistrate of the second class specially empowered in this behalf under sub-section 2 , may take cognizance of any offence- a upon receiving a complaint of facts which constitute such offence; b upon a police report of such facts; c upon information received from any person other than a police officer, or upon his own knowledge, that such offence has been committed. Had everyone been allowed to file a complaint, then it would have resulted in chaos in the families and loads of cases would have been registered which might be out of spite to show that family in bad repute. In the case of R. Legal notice of demand was issued by the complainant against the accused on: 10.
Only through an inquiry, the court below could have decided to avoid some of the respondents from further proceedings. It has been opined that if a magistrate takes action under S. The language of Section 193 of the Code very clearly indicates that once the case is committed to the Court of Session by the learned Magistrate, the Court of Session assumes original jurisdiction and all that goes with the assumption of such jurisdiction. The view expressed in Kishun Singh's case, in our view, is more acceptable since, as has been held by this Court in the cases referred to hereinbefore, the Magistrate has ample powers to disagree with the Final Report that may be filed by the police authorities under Section 173 3 of the Code and to proceed against the accused persons dehors the police report, which power the Session Court does not have till the Section 319 stage is reached. Therefore, the above said provision is also a legal and specific bar to take cognizance of the offence.
The earliest decision of the Apex Court on the point is R. However the meaning of the terms is well settled by the Courts. To this general rule, Sections 195 to 199 of Cr. By these sections, only the most affected persons are given right to file a complaint as they are considered to be aggrieved at most. A dismissal of the complaint under Sec. This confusion occurs because of the fact that the Code is not explicit as to the nature of disposal of the complaint when the Magistrate decides not to take cognizance. The issuance of process is at a subsequent stage when after considering the material placed before it the Court decides to proceed against the offenders against whom a prima facie case is made out.
It was also held that Section 319 of the Code did not operate in such a situation. The object of this section is to prevent a Magistrate of his own motion inquiring into cases of marriage, unless the husband or other authorized person complains so, but once a case has been placed before him, a Magistrate is free to proceed against any person implicated. The court below ought not have absolved some of the respondents from criminal liability and thereafter forwarded the complaint for quick verification or investigation, as the case may be, under S. On the basis of the said first information report, the Sub-Urban Police, Dharwad investigated the matter, submitted the charge sheet. These restrictions have been placed on sound policy considerations and have been considered important for faster disposal of cases.
Legal notice of demand issued by the complainant was served on the accused on: 14. Respected Tripathi Sir, It was neither quiz or test query nor my actual problem. Out of these three, first two are in the realm of pre-cognizance stage. Section 190- 199 of the code describe the methods by which, and the limitations subject to which, various criminal courts are entitled to take cognizance of offences. Section 190- 199 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 describe the methods by which, and the limitations subject to which, various criminal courts are entitled to take cognizance of offences. Points which merit consideration: 1. Taking cognizance does not involve any formal action, or indeed action of any kind, but occurs as soon as a Magistrate, as such, applies his mind to the suspected commission of an offence.
In the event, a Magistrate takes cognizance of the offence and then commits the case to the Court of Session, the question of taking fresh cognizance of the offence and, thereafter, proceed to issue summons, is not in accordance with law. The word 'cognizance' indicates the point when a Magistrate or a Judge first takes judicial notice of an offence. It was held that cognizance is simply a frame of mind that there is prima facie evidence against the accused that he might be involved in the case, it has nothing to do with the pronouncement of guilt of the accused. Prosecution for contempt of lawful authority of public servants, for offences against public justice and for offences relating to documents given in evidence 1 No Court shall take cognizance- a i of any offence punishable under sections 172 to 188 both inclusive of the Indian Penal Code 45 of 1860 , or ii of any abetment of, attempt to commit, such offence, or iii of any criminal conspiracy to commit, such offence, except on the complaint in writing of the public servant concerned or of some other public servant to whom he is administratively subordinate; b i of any offence punishable under any of the following section of the Indian Penal Code 45 of 1860 , namely, sections 193 to 196 both inclusive , 199, 200, 205 to 211 both inclusive and 228, when such offence is alleged to have been committed in, or in relation to, any proceeding in any Court, or ii of any offence described in section 463, or punishable under section 471, section 475 or section 476, of the said Code, when such offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a document produced or given in evidence in a proceeding in any Court, or iii of any criminal conspiracy to commit, or attempt to commit, or the abetment of, any offence specified in sub-clause i or sub-clause ii , except on the complaint in writing of that Court or by such officer of the Court as that Court may authorise in writing in this behalf, or of some other Court to which that Court is subordinate. Section — Exclusion of date on which Court is closed Where the period of limitation expires on a day when the Court is closed, the Court may take cognizance on the day on which the Court reopens. For better analysis of the scope of cognizance and the consequences arising therefrom, it is worthwhile to highlight the scheme of relevant provisions in the Code and the case laws touching the same. In support of his submissions, Mr.
The person produced a substitute girl identifying her and asserting her to the same girl. In the last of several matters heard by this Court, namely, Criminal Appeal No. While calculating the monetary limit for the purpose of launching prosecution, the value shall be the amount availed as credit in excess of the amount originally stated in the invoice. The Court should exercise judicial discretion taking into consideration all the relevant facts and circumstances. The provisions of section 89 and 90 have been summarized on the next page. Taking cognizance actually does not involve any formal action by the judge or magistrate, because as soon as a magistrate applies his mind to the suspected commission of an offence for the purpose of taking subsequent steps under criminal procedure code for example summoning an accused on the basis of the information available for enquiry or trial, cognizance can be said to have been taken.
Learned counsel pointed out that in Section 207A of the 1898 Code, the Magistrate was mandatorily required to hold a mini-trial before committing the case to the Court of Session, whereas under Section 190 of the Code of 1973, the Magistrate, having jurisdiction, may take cognizance of any offence: a Upon receiving a complaint of facts, which constitute such offence; b Upon a police report of such facts; c Upon information received from any person other than a police report, or upon his own knowledge, that such offence has been committed. A cheque must have been issued by the accused in favour of the complainant for discharge of a legally enforceable debt or liability. Reference was also made to the decision of this Court in Abhinandan Jha Vs. It has been held that the Court of single Judge of the High Court is subordinate to the Division Bench of the High Court which hears appeals from such Court in certain cases. This provision would be attracted when the amount was reflected in the invoices as service tax, service receiver has already made the payment and the period of six months has elapsed from the date on which the service provider was required to pay the tax to the Central Government. The Court then referred to the three situations enumerated in sub-section 1 of Section 190 upon which a Magistrate could take cognizance. The sanction under sub-section 1 of Section 196 of the Code need not, in the case of the State Government, be signed personally by the Governor.