A continuous Process Planning is a continuous process and a never ending activity of a manager in an enterprise based upon some assumptions which may or may not come true in the future. Moreover, social processes are often so intertwined that it would be misleading to consider them separately. These patterns cannot be applied simply and easily to social reality. Two types of problems can be broadly identified: the distribution of resources by domain and by clientele. Educated persons, working collectively, can extract a better living from a given environment than uneducated persons can. Another type of social change is that of , in which the percentage of growth is constant over time and the change accelerates correspondingly. Most changes did not originate in the West, but some important changes did, such as the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism.
This is becoming increasingly recognized in legislation, such as the Elementary and Secondary School Act of 1965, designed to distribute federal funds to schools with a substantial number of lowincome families. If we accept the traditional compartmentalization of programs as given, allocative decisions may typically be concerned with the distribution of resources by functional domain. As such, it requires the support of the whole community — from political leaders to key stakeholders to the general public. There is, however, the unfortunate tendency in most planning efforts to involve the citizens only to the extent of asking them to endorse plans already prepared in advance rather than to use citizen groups for the initiation of policy ideas Wilson 1963. Pages 173—201 in Ralph J. Most such efforts have succumbed under the pressure of established institutions after having survived, with little success, for only short periods.
Socialism may also refer to political ideologies and movements thathave the establishment of socialism as their ultimate goal. The problem of discontinuity Social service can become disjointed or discontinuous if there is a failure to provide component services that are necessary to complete the cycle of change. On one hand, Lampman suggests that, in the aggregate, welfare systems are redistributive and that they work for the advantage of lower-income people. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 29:242—249. Moreover, many services function not only as devices for meeting demand but also as rationing systems designed to limit either the volume or the quality and extensiveness of the service that each person receives. For example, the best way of reducing the energy requirements of transportation may involve expanding the telephone system, so that on the average several telephone calls which expend virtually no energy and very little other scarce natural resources may save a trip. The units into which the plan divided the city were determined by transportation routes and other physical criteria, and did not reflect established social groups or ecological conditions of change and growth.
These strategies seem to emphasize cooperation of workers rather than coordination of services. Yet another change may be a shift from one pole to the other of a continuum—from religious to ways of thinking, for example. These are the conditions under which planning activities are to be undertaken. City planning has existed ever since man began to build towns and to make decisions about their future. In order to simplify this analysis, we will consider these allocative decisions in relation to specific tasks, such as the apportionment of money among items in an annual budget or among the components of a development plan. India Republic , Planning Commission 1956 Second Five Year Plan.
The only land uses programmed for future growth were those favored by middle-class residents, high-status industrial and commercial establishments, the real estate interests catering to both, and the tax collector. Social planning is a conscious interactional process combining investigation, discussion, agreement and action in order to achieve those conditions, relationships and values that are regarded as desirable. Communities that effectively undertake these processes help to build healthier communities. The specific meaning of social change depends first on the social entity considered. Thus, planning helps in foreseeing uncertainties which may be caused by changes in technology, fashion and taste of people, government rules and regulations, etc. The development of universal programs designed to reach the total population does not avoid the need to make choices. The master planners were also hampered by conditions not of their making.
Fagin, Henry 1959 Organizing and Carrying Out Planning Activities Within Urban Governments. The classic example of this process, as first suggested by Adam Smith, is the tendency in capitalism toward collusion and the establishment of monopolies when small firms are driven out of the competitive marketplace. The foreseeable limits of the combined effects of the known technologies are a doubling, occasionally a trebling, of the output available to a population. ? Thus we sometimes may use primarily economic tools to achieve social objectives, as when we create employment opportunities and training opportunities in order to reduce youth unemployment and raise personal and family income, including those families receiving public assistance. As a result, the revised project design is more closely linked to the characteristics of the market, it is automatically alerted to a wider variety of danger signals emanating from the environment, and a series of monitoring and are incorporated into the design which combine information acquired from the outside with data generated from within the operation. A major problem created by comprehensive planning is that it leads, in the short run, to competition for resources, as each community agency tries to provide the relevant services for a specialized population at risk—victims of relocation, the poor, disadvantaged youths, public assistance recipients, the mentally ill, etc. Some things should be in the public commons, what benefits all collectively.
Socialization is interaction in a social group or communityas a life-long process through which from the formative phase tomaturity learn skills and attitudes to function as a member ofsociety. In some underdeveloped countries for example, India social planning is combined with a democratic political system of free elections based on universal suffrage. After the reformers had built a few model facilities with private funds in the slums of several eastern cities, they realized that they lacked the resources to alter the entire city by this approach, and so they began to use their considerable social status and what remained of their political influence to propose that the cities take over their programs as municipal functions. This universal human potential for social change has a biological basis. Good communication also assists the coordinators, in that by regularly providing updates, they are able to keep track of who needs to know what, and when.
Service inundation The same client is often known to many community services, each of which may send a worker into the home of the family and may hold out to the family a set of expectations for desired social performance and exert sanctions for nonconformity. United Nations 1953 United Nations Scientific Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of Resources: Proceedings. Urban Development Models: New Tools for Planning. It supports community needs and interests in social, cultural, economic, and environmental affairs. Many social agencies and practitioners can get third party reimbursement from insurance companies but there is no equivalent funding mechanism to serve communities needing intervention. Similarly, a redevelopment agency involved in the problem of the physical renewal of the city may need a range of community services in order to make possible the relocation of difficult-to-place tenants, such as those with very large families or with special problems. Small-scale and short-term changes are characteristic of societies, because customs and norms change, new techniques and technologies are invented, environmental changes spur new , and conflicts result in redistributions of power.